Useful french essay phrases

Pour contenir et canaliser [le sujet]….. (“To distill and lay bare [the subject]” it basically can be used when talking about what a subject or problem essentially ‘is’))

pour que soit envisagée une solution……. (in order that a solution is envisaged)

le prix à payer est lourd. (The price to pay is steep)

Le débat est ouvert……..la seule certitude est que… (the debate is open, the only certain thing is that..)

même si les garanties sont illusoires (even if what is certain is just a trick)

vis-à-vis de ce problème (as for this problem)

Le gouvernement se débarasse de toute responsabilité (The government is ridding itself of all responsibility)

La société contemporaine représente l’un des acteurs clés du système d’exploitation (Contemporary society represents one of the key players of the system of exploitation)

C’est à nous de ramasser les dividendes (it’s up to us to reap the dividends)

La puissance financière facilite la corruption (Financial power facilitates corruption)

On a vu développer un relation ambiguë (we’ve seen develop an ambiguous relationship)

Enraciné dans le sentiment de…. (rooted in the feeling of…)

Qui se réfugient dans une anesthésie émotionnelle (Those who bury their head under the sand - literally ‘those who take refuge in emotional anathesia’)

De l’illusion à la désillusion (moving from illusion to disillusion..)

Un phénomène qui appartient à toutes les couches sociales (a phenomenon that occurs with all social classes)

économiquement défavorisé (economically disadvantaged)

Un des phénomènes marquants des deux derniers décennies (one of the most stunning phenomena of the last two decades..)

La montée fulgurante de l’insécurité… (the startling increase of insecurity)

Le nec plus ultra…. (literally “the furthest point” - use it to illustrate an extreme example or strongest example of something like ‘le nec plus ultra de l’insecurité est constitué par les emeutes dans les banlieues qu’on a vu se declencher dans le passé’ - “the furthest occasion of insecurity is constitued by the suburban riots that we have seen unleash in the past”)

Les deux choses se révèlent indissociables (The two things reveal themselves to be indistinguishable)

Essayer de coordonner leur action dans le domaine de la lutte contre…. (To try to coordinate their action in the field of the struggle against..)

On peut considérer le…………comme un mal nécessaire (we can consider… as a necessary evil)

Aucune position cohérente n’existe à ce jour, ni en Europe ni dans le monde. (no coherent position exists right now, neither in Europe, nor in the world)

Le gouvernement prévoit que soient prises des mesures propres à assurer.. (The government predicts that straight measures will be taken to assure..)

Une conséquence de bouleversements sociaux… (A consequence of social upheaval…)

des conflits éthniques et politiques prennent des dimensions alarmantes (ethnic and political conflicts take on alarming dimensions)

Ce problème a acquis un poids économique majeur (this problem has acquired a major economic weight)

Se débarrasser du problème avec des arguments fallacieux (to rid oneself of the problem with false arguments)

Lutter contre………. légitimer quelque chose (struggle against…. legitimize something)

un gigantesque système d’exploitation (a gigantic system of exploitation)

tout en lui donnant plus de sécurité et de légitimité qu’il n’en avait jamais rêvé (all while giving him more security and legitimacy than he had ever dreamt of)

Tous les médias participent à sa banalisation (All the media is participating in its trivilization)

——

Intro:
Tout le monde s’accorde à penser que …

De nos jours, un problème croissant de l’actualité est…

Il convient donc, d’examiner tous les raisons pour lesquelles…

De nos jours, un thème brûlant de l’actualité est celui de…

Arguments:
Réfléchissons d’abord aux raisons pour lesquelles…

Il est bien connu que …

Après avoir étudié les pours, venons-en maintenant aux contres…

Conclusion:
En guise de conclusion, il est clair que…

Il est évident, d’après ce qui précède, que…

Acetylcholine is found in vesicles present in the pre-syanaptic neurone
Acetylcholinesterase is found attached to the post-synaptic membrane in the synaptic cleft.

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter
Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme

Acetylcholine is expelled from the presynaptic neurone (via exocytosis of the vesicles upon an influx of Ca2+ into the cell), the acetlychoine then diffusses across the synaptic cleft and binds to complementary receptors on the post-synaptic membrane hence causing the opening of associated Na+ ion channels therefore leading to an action potential in the post-synaptic neurone (upon generator potential reaching the threshold value of -55mV)

Acetylcholinesterase hydrolyses the Acetylcholine (to choline and acetate) in the synaptic cleft. This prevents overstimulation and potential damage of the neurone by ensuring the Acetylcholine only has a limited period in which it can bind to complmentary receptors before it is hydrolysed. This effect also ensure that the acetlycholine can be replaced as the choline and acetate then diffuse back into the pre-synaptic neurone (down the concentration gradient) and are reformed back into acetylcholine ready for release should another nervous impulse arrive.

Gene Expression: Regulation of transcription and translation

apocketmerlin:

Cell specialisation is the result of the selective expression of certain genes out of the full set of DNA found in every cell: i.e, each and every cell in the body holds a complete copy of the DNA of that organism, complete with the genes required to code for every protein, however, only particular genes are expressed in particular cells, hence only particular proteins are coded for. 

☞ TRANSCRIPTION OF TARGET GENES IS STIMULATED ONLY WHEN SPECIFIC TRANSCRIPTIONAL FACTORS MOVE FROM THE CYTOPLASM INTO THE NUCLEUS

-Every gene is controlled by one/more sections of DNA called PROMOTER REGIONS
-PROMOTER REGIONS are located close to the functional gene they control, and are located upstream of said gene.

Read More

Genetics: Key Terminology

apocketmerlin:



GENOTYPE is the genetic constitution of an organism, it describes all of the alleles that an organism contains.

PHENOTYPE is the (often observable) characteristics of an organism, resulting from the interaction between the expression of the genotype and the environment.

A GENE is a section of DNA (a sequence of nucleotide bases) that codes for a sequence of amino acids, thus coding for specific polypeptides (proteins) which therefore determine particular characteristics (eg. coding for enzymes which make up a biochemical pathway to produce the pigments needed for a particular hair colour). Genes exist in multiple forms, called alleles. The location of a gene on a chromosome is known as the

bio-notesa2:

The membrane stars in its resting state, polarised, with the inside of the cell being -60mV compared to the outside
Sodium ion channels open when triggered by a change in the external environment (such as pressure). As a result some sodium ions diffuse into the cell
The membrane depolarises, it becomes less negative with respect to the outside and reaches the threshold value of -50mV
Voltage-gated sodium ion channels open and many sodium ions flood in. As more sodium ions enter the cell becomes positively charged compared with the outside
The potential difference across the membrane reaches +40mV. The inside of the cell is more positive than the outside
The sodium ion channels close and potassium ion channels open
Potassium ions diffuse out of the cell down a concentration difference, bringing the potential difference back to negative inside compared with the outside. This is called repolarisation.
The potential difference overshoots slightly, making the cell hyperpolarised.
The original potential difference is restored so that the cell returns to its resting state.
C’est fini!
Zoom Info
bio-notesa2:

The membrane stars in its resting state, polarised, with the inside of the cell being -60mV compared to the outside
Sodium ion channels open when triggered by a change in the external environment (such as pressure). As a result some sodium ions diffuse into the cell
The membrane depolarises, it becomes less negative with respect to the outside and reaches the threshold value of -50mV
Voltage-gated sodium ion channels open and many sodium ions flood in. As more sodium ions enter the cell becomes positively charged compared with the outside
The potential difference across the membrane reaches +40mV. The inside of the cell is more positive than the outside
The sodium ion channels close and potassium ion channels open
Potassium ions diffuse out of the cell down a concentration difference, bringing the potential difference back to negative inside compared with the outside. This is called repolarisation.
The potential difference overshoots slightly, making the cell hyperpolarised.
The original potential difference is restored so that the cell returns to its resting state.
C’est fini!
Zoom Info

bio-notesa2:

  1. The membrane stars in its resting state, polarised, with the inside of the cell being -60mV compared to the outside
  2. Sodium ion channels open when triggered by a change in the external environment (such as pressure). As a result some sodium ions diffuse into the cell
  3. The membrane depolarises, it becomes less negative with respect to the outside and reaches the threshold value of -50mV
  4. Voltage-gated sodium ion channels open and many sodium ions flood in. As more sodium ions enter the cell becomes positively charged compared with the outside
  5. The potential difference across the membrane reaches +40mV. The inside of the cell is more positive than the outside
  6. The sodium ion channels close and potassium ion channels open
  7. Potassium ions diffuse out of the cell down a concentration difference, bringing the potential difference back to negative inside compared with the outside. This is called repolarisation.
  8. The potential difference overshoots slightly, making the cell hyperpolarised.
  9. The original potential difference is restored so that the cell returns to its resting state.
  10. C’est fini!
apocketmerlin:

Aerobic Respiration within a Eukaryotic cell, approx. net gain of 38 ATP (adenosine triphosphate) molecules. 02 is the oxidising agent (electron acceptor). 
Simplified reaction: 
C₆H₁₂O₆ (s) + 6O₂ (g) → 6CO₂ (g) + 6H₂O (l) + heat (ΔG= -2880kJ per mole of gluecose)

apocketmerlin:

Aerobic Respiration within a Eukaryotic cell, approx. net gain of 38 ATP (adenosine triphosphate) molecules. 02 is the oxidising agent (electron acceptor). 

Simplified reaction: 

C₆H₁₂O₆ (s) + 6O₂ (g) → 6CO₂ (g) + 6H₂O (l) + heat (ΔG= -2880kJ per mole of gluecose)